(Cinnamomum cassia)

Cinnamon is added to a variety of products, ranging from foods (e.g., breakfast cereals, baked goods) to fragrances and essential oils. Cinnamon was ranked within the 25 top-selling herbal supplements in 2019 due to popularity and prevalent use. As a supplement, cinnamon is promoted for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, and other conditions. Collectively, cinnamon has the ...


(Hydrastis canadensis)

The dried rhizome and root of goldenseal comprise products touted for their antimicrobial properties, gastrointestinal effects, and widely utilized to manage the common cold or other respiratory tract symptoms. Goldenseal products are among the most commonly used dietary supplements in the U.S. and may be a clinically relevant precipitant of interactions with conventional medications.


(Mitragyna speciosa)

Kratom is a member of the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. Dried kratom leaves are used to manufacture various products marketed as dietary supplements touted for their analgesic and stimulant effects. Naturally occurring alkaloids within kratom leaves in conjunction with biologically generated metabolites following human consumption likely drive physiologic effects and may mediate clinically ...


(Cannabis sativa)

Oral cannabis products are widely used for recreational and therapeutic purposes under varying state-specific regulations. Marijuana products often are standardized in relation to psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) content. Both of these primary cannabinoid constituents have the potential to precipitate interactions with conventional medications.


Green Tea
(Camellia sinensis)

Products made from the leaves of green tea are among the most widely consumed natural products worldwide. Claims including cardioprotection, chemoprevention, and weight loss drive green tea beverage and dietary supplement popularity. The increasing popularity of green tea products increases the likelihood of co-consumption with conventional medications resulting in potentially important green tea-drug interactions.